According to the international definition, kefir a fermented milk starter cultures obtained from kefir grains containing lactobacilli Lactobacillus kefir, species of Leuconostoc, Lactococcus and Acetobacter and lactose fermenting yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus and lactose non-fermenting Saccharomyces unisporus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces exiguus. The Polish norm for fermented milk products, kefir defines a fermented milk containing the characteristic used for the fermentation of microflora of kefir grains of the species L. kefiri and the type Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Acetobacter and lactose fermenting yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus and lactose non-fermenting Saccharomyces unisporus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Saccharomyces exiguus. Characteristic of this drink kefir grain ingredients, are the specific culture of the natural ecosystem living in symbiosis immobilized microbial cells, which creates a flexible structure polysaccharide produced by the microflora of the grains, called kefiranem. Kefir grains look like their white-yellow gelatinous beads, cooked grain of rice or cauliflower florets in size from a few millimeters to 2 – 5 cm.
KEFIR MEAN WELL BEING.
Literally, the name comes because of the Turkish language, the word keyif – well-being or kef – a pleasant taste. Both of these properties, we can not deny the product, as indeed it is a valuable source of health and dietary value and taste. Kefir taste is determined by experts as a delicate, sparkling, refreshing and yeast. It is characteristic of yeast kefirowi give the flavor. Features leading good quality kefir are also its aroma and moderate acidity. Scientifically proven that the kefir, like other fermented milk beverages, food poisoning Staphylococcus prevents and inhibits bacterial growth processes type Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Helicobacter, and Staphylococcus. Fermented milk products, compared with conventional milk, are further characterized by higher bioavailability of protein and fat content and increased vitamin B1, B12, K, folic acid, magnesium, calcium and positively affecting the nervous system of amino acids. Even a small amount of lactic acid increases the ability to digest milk protein, iron and phosphorus absorption, stimulates the secretion of gastric juices, accelerating peristalsis. Kefir also protects the digestive system against infections and depleted by antibiotics. This shows the strong anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and healing. The study also showed that kefir grains degrade cholesterol. Kefir good quality, and as such it is considered kefir Yugoslavian, Hungarian and areas of the Northern Caucasus, can assimilate cholesterol in milk as low as 62% to 84% – depending on the time of incubation and grains. In addition, kefir has a positive effect on high blood pressure and blood glucose, also prevents osteoporosis. Due to the presence of lactic acid fermentation bacteria ß-galactosidase enzyme, can consume this drink lactose-intolerant patients, since this enzyme breaks down lactose in people who do not have.
Kefir earliest was produced in the mountainous regions of the Northern Caucasus, Central Asia, Tibet and Mongolia in the process of natural fermentation of goat’s milk, sheep’s and cow’s milk. It was produced in leather bags or oak barrels, where it packs developed specific microflora in the form of kefir grains. The use of modern polyethylene packaging instead used until recently, glass bottles sealed with aluminum caps, forced producers to use freeze-dried cultures for direct inoculation of milk processed are. Replacement working soreness obtained from the use of this type of kefir grain cultures significantly reduced the quality of the finished product – he received kefiropodobnego features. Since the hermetic plastic packaging under produced by yeast carbon dioxide bulge, nowadays produced kefir contain the minimal number or even manufactured without yeast. Kefir thus lost their distinctive qualities of flavor and some health. It is now known that a good quality kefir addition to the above features, it should be smooth, uniform, containing bubbles of carbon dioxide clot, white or cream color and thick and slightly viscous consistency. For micro-organisms contained in the fermented milk showed a therapeutic effect, the daily dose should be 108-1010 probiotic bacterial cells (cfu) per day. This of course, is the healthiest produced by traditional methods. Polish kefir quality requirements are much lower compared to the standards of the FAO / WHO, probably just because the market of fermented milk products in our country leaves much to be desired in terms of their quality.