Tatra stand out from all the bands Carpathian an abundance of vegetation. In the Polish Tatras alone there are over a thousand species of vascular plants, of which two hundred and fifty of them are endemic, that is, those that do not grow anywhere else in the world-according to the most recent data are them two inconspicuous plants: bluegrass awnless noble and skylight. In the Tatras have their positions Carpathian endemic general, some of which until recently was only found here, and while some of them had received misleading now called “Tatra”: Tatra scurvy-grass, wallflower Wahlenberga, Erigeron Hungarian fescue smooth brome, larkspur and skalinica Tatra Tatra. Many species growing in the Tatra Mountains is one of the relics, or plants that have survived from distant epochs, or those which commonly occur once in a given area, but almost extinct due to habitat changes.
Ice Age relics are, for example. Creamy white mountain avens and dwarf willow żyłkowata. There is of course in the Tatra plants from even the Tertiary; these include carnation shiny purple larkspur and Tatra. Tatra youngest relic is common in the lowlands Scots pine, which has spread to the resignation of the glaciers, but was soon supplanted by spruce trees. Rare specimens preserved only pine for some isolated positions, eg. On Nosal and on the Rock nad Nisou Polaną.
By varying climatic vegetation in the Tatra Mountains, as well as in other high mountains, arranged in strips, creating a distinctive floor in different altitude zones. It can be well observed, looking at the northern slopes of the Tatra Mountains, eg. From the slopes of Gubałówka.
The lowest floor of the lower montane forests form, reaching the height of 1150-1250 m above sea level This forest was once consisted of beech and fir forests with an admixture of spruce, maples, jarząbów, yew and larch. However, the human economy meant that natural stand was replaced almost uniform Świerczyńcami. To this day, the valleys and the White Strążyska survived only a few pieces of beech-fir forest. With plants growing in the floor reglowym, mention may anemones, marigolds, Turk’s cap lilies and nine forces. On clearings carved inside early spring crocus blooms mass conspiracies popularly called focus.
Above, to an altitude of 1550 m above sea level, extends to the next floor called the upper montane belt. There’s a dark spruce forest, where there is a queen of the upper zone of trees Tatra – limba. The most beautiful piece of preserved stone-pine belt on the slopes of frog in the Valley Fish Brook. On the other trees of the upper montane should mention European larch, hawk common, willow and birch Carpathian Silesia. On the steep walls meet very interesting, so. Urwiskowe spruce forests.
Above the upper limit of the forest belt is pine. Among her many fiefs growing shrubs and trees such as willow beetle, Carpathian birch, currant rock and alpine rose. Among the green plants characteristic of this zone is bitterness and glaucoma. Next floor to a height of 2300 meters above sea level, create halls, or alpine meadows overgrown plants characteristic for themselves. Top floor vegetation called turniowym, appears in the form of a typical high only in the Tatras. Despite the harsh conditions prevailing here, in this area we can find here about a hundred species of vascular plants of the (to them include flowering plants and ferns). They grow well here mosses and lichens.