World War I ushered in the distribution of the forces in the world. The battle fought by European powers disturbance caused global position of Europe. Most of the countries of the Old Continent experienced serious crisis. Britain and France – came out of the war weakened and indebted. Their main rival Germany – deprived colonies, temporarily ceased to count in the world. Russia is also the time needed to return to imperial policy.
On the problems of Europe’s most strengthened international position of the United States. Americans greatly contributed to the victory of the Entente, supporting her financially and militarily. As a result of the costs incurred by the Member of the Old Continent, the Americans took over the trade routes and markets of the former European manufacturers. Europe has become indebted to the US because during the war drew considerable loan. Under the terms of which ended in 1922. Washington Conference American and British navy was to become equal. During the third power of the sea it was Japan. The weakening of Europe helped the Japanese in the implementation of dominance in the Far East. Asia started to turn again to the global competition.
The period that followed America’s 20s, had serious consequences for the entire world. American investments helped Europe to overcome the post-war crisis but also their dependence of its position on the situation in the US. In America, under the influence of growing prosperity began to develop a model of consumer society. In the years 1919-1929 US per capita income grew by nearly 30%. Taxes were lowered and fortunes began to spend on the massive purchase of goods. Loans and payments systems have allowed even indigent residents to purchase luxury goods such as houses or cars. In the years 1917-1929 the number of registered vehicles increased from 2, 5 million to 26 million. Charlie Chaplin, Louis Armstrong, George Gershwin recognition became symbols of American culture. Through the media influenced the US to other countries. Americanization became a characteristic of the whole of the last century.
Contrary to the assertions of economists, autumn 1929. There was a sudden economic collapse. The Great Depression began. Production far ahead blankly getting rich people buying on credit and could not continue indefinitely. The artificial boom ended in “Black Thursday” on October 24, 1929. Then, on the New York stock market panic. The same situation occurred five days later. In these days of nearly 30 million shares offered for sale not found their buyers. Outstanding loans and the massive attempts to withdraw savings led to disorganization of the banking system. Impoverished people suddenly stopped buying goods for which bankrupted many manufacturers. This resulted in a sharp increase in unemployment, and since then not paid benefits, many people are left without any means of livelihood. Because of the role of the United States, the great crisis spread to most countries. Decreased global production, trade declined and unemployment in developed countries reached 50 million. These developments led to a huge wave of frustration and aroused antipathy to democracy and capitalism. Most governments are struggling with the effects of the crisis opted for an interventionist, or active involvement in the economy. The creation of state-owned enterprises influenced the reduction of unemployment and revive production and consumption. In the ’30s became the dominant interventionist economic policies. In America, ruling from 1933. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal announced (New Deal) – a comprehensive reform of the US economy. Federal authorities were given the opportunity to intervene in the industry, agriculture, finance. Organized public works, employed people from various professions. Introduced mandatory pension system, and unemployment benefits. This policy has helped calm the mood in the country. After similar measures, but on a smaller scale, reached other governments.
Postwar Europe’s problems have contributed to the development of national movements in Asia. Participants agreed that the Washington negotiations in the area of China adopted the principle of “open door”. These decisions provoked outrage Chinese patriots, among which grew revenues Kuomintang (Nationalist Party), proclaiming the dump program of foreign domination, the creation of a united republic and the modernization of the country. Disappointed with the attitude of the Entente activists approached the Kuomintang in 1923. In the direction of the Soviet Union. With the help of the Soviet authorities organized the National Revolutionary Army. In the years 1926-1928 under the command of this army of Chiang Kai-shek, seized a large part of the country.
Japan was the only independent country in Asia, which in the nineteenth century. Adopted the achievements of industrial civilization. High population growth, the need to gain markets and raw materials, has ensured that the Empire tended toward the expansion policy. Her fields were rich in raw land China. The Japanese tried to make the Chinese protectorate but Washington conference were forced to “open doors”. Settlement met with criticism of military and Japanese nationalists, who in the 20s won a dominant influence on the country’s politics. Their scheme provided for the conquest of the Far East, to remove from the area of Europeans and Americans and the creation of an Asian empire under the leadership of Japan. In 1931. Manchurian incident took place, without the knowledge of the Japanese military to civil authorities seized Manchuria – China’s land on the border with the Soviet Union. Despite the protests of international opinion formed the Japanese Manchukuo in 1932. City was the beachhead for further conquests. In 1937. Japanese army invaded China and won Beijing, Shanghai and Nanjing. Chinese aid granted USSR and the USA, against which drew up plans for the Japanese. The war in the Far East became a part of the global conflict leading to the outbreak of the Second World War.
World War I also stumbled British dominion in India. Activists people, gathered in the Indian National Congress, demanded the establishment of self-government and to give autonomy within the British Empire. Colonial authorities rejected such claims. In the years 1919-1921 the country swept strikes and demonstrations, which the British suppressed by force. Repression is not shattered, however, the Indian National Congress. At the head of the Indian national movement stood Gandhi- Indian spiritual leader. His main idea was to renounce violence. Gandhi mobilized the masses of Indians to share consisting of passive resistance and civil disobedience and a boycott of British goods institutions. Gandhi’s methods provide the Indian national movement notoriety in the world. The British finally decided to make concessions. In 1935. India received a constitution which guaranteed the autonomy of the individual provinces. In 1936. The election ended in success of the Indian National Congress. Sharpened the conflict between the Hindu majority and the local Muslims. This conflict has caused in the near future civil war and the division of the country on Idnie and Pakistan.