In the case of this disease, it is important to carefully follow all instructions from it is also important that the therapy fully successful. Unfortunately, it is a chronic disease, so you should learn to live with it and learn the most important principles.
The glucose level – what are the standards?
Sugar level before a meal should be between 60-99 mg / dl. With advanced diabetes seeks to ensure that not more than 110 mg / dl.
When fed the glucose concentration rises in the blood (the most within the first hour), but should not be greater than 140-160 mg / dl.
The average (over 3 months)
Is called. glycated hemoglobin. To examine it, you should go to the lab. The average blood sugar level should not exceed 6-7%.
Children’s problem – the type I diabetes
It is primarily a nuisance of children and adolescents, hence its colloquial name – juvenile diabetes.
Important missing insulin delivery
Cause of Type I diabetes is unclear. In this disease the body behaves aggressively towards his own body – the pancreas. In normal pancreas would produce insulin, but here it is not capable of this. The missing hormone must be supplied from outside.
If parents teach the child to control the disease, it will be able to live a normal life, as peers.
* Observe regular mealtimes and insulin (as prescribed) – allows it to mimic the body and the physiological rhythm of hormone secretion.
* When injecting insulin injection site should be changed – the administration of the drug in the same area causes tissue hypertrophy, impeding its absorption.
Prevention menacing hypoglycaemia
Inadequate adherence to medical recommendations can result in hazardous to your health (and life!) Hypoglycemia body.
* A child should not do large gaps between meals, or if too small portions, because then the blood sugar levels can be very reduced.
* If there are worrying signs (sweating, shaking hands, tingling around the mouth, blurred vision, anxiety, drowsiness) – enter the food, after which is growing rapidly in the blood glucose level (eg. Sugar cube), and take the child to the doctor.
Adults – type II diabetes
It is fueled by obesity, hypertension and advanced age. In type II diabetes, the immune system is innocent and does not damage the pancreas. Despite this, the body is failing (produces too little insulin, which does not work as it should). As a result, the blood is maintained high levels of sugar. It decreases m. In. by medication. But to treatment was fully effective, change lifestyle. Report to your doctor if you are: often urination (ie. Polyuria), increased thirst, increased appetite combined with weight loss, fatigue, problems with concentration and memory.
Diet and exercise is the key
* First, eat foods with a low glycemic index (GI for short), that is, after which the blood sugar level rises in a small, safe for your health, degree. Products with a medium GI eat occasionally, and those with a high exclude from your diet completely.
* Secondly, prepared meals in the right way (so as not to increase their IG). Cook products in water or steam, simmer them without frying, bake in foil or parchment, yogurt or kefir replaces (instead of cream). Cancel it with salt and sugar, instead use herbs and sweeteners.
* Thirdly, eat 5-6 meals a day, small portions and at fixed times. This will ensure a balanced blood sugar (both prevent its rapid increase and sudden decline).
* Fourth: take care of every movement. Working muscles use glucose (and lowers the level of sugar in the blood). The most recommended is to walk (too intense exercise can cause hypoglycemia).
Custom measurements – an important source of knowledge
Daily control the blood sugar level using a glucometer. Your doctor may also recommend to measure: on an empty stomach, before main meals and 2 hours after them, before going to bed (approx. Hrs. 22), at night.
Allies and enemies on a plate
Foods with a low glycemic index
Recommended: onion, garlic, soy, cooked: green peas, white beans and lentils, tomatoes, cucumbers, radishes, kohlrabi, endive, lettuce, raw carrots, apples, plums, peaches, oranges, grapefruit, milk 0, 5 per cent., skinny white cheese, whole wheat bread, brown pasta, brown rice, sea fish, olive oil.
Foods with a medium glycemic index
Allowed (from time to time): briefly boiled carrots, green beans canned sweet corn, beets boiled, ripe bananas, pineapples, apricots, kiwi, grapes, melons, fruit in syrup, bread with grains, oats, semolina, buckwheat, couscous, lean white meat (chicken, turkey).
Foods with a high glycemic index
We strongly discouraged: white bread, chips, dried dates, pumpkin, green beans, broad beans, carrots cooked long, potatoes (boiled, mashed, french fries), white rice, rice gruel, millet, corn flakes, flour products (noodles, dumplings, pancakes, pancakes), cheese, sugar, honey, pork.